CSIR-IITR, dream of a visionary, became a reality in 1965 as Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC). The founder Director, Prof. Sibte Hasan Zaidi, could foresee the need to address health related work environment of the industrial workers in post independence era of rapid industrialization in the country. It was advocated that the improper and inadequate use of chemicals and fertilizers will have adverse effects on health and environment leading to an overall adverse impact on growth and development of the country. Hence studies were needed to develop strategies for sustainable industrial development. ITRC gained national importance by addressing the health problems of our industrial work force in a growing economy. Pioneering studies carried out during the formative years were directly linked to miners’ health especially respiratory ailments.